Multicomponent self-assembling bioinks offer a unique opportunity to recreate chemical and mechanical features of the ECM and selective communication with cells. Liquid-in-liquid printing, the inoculation of one low viscosity liquid phase into another, offers an opportunity to design bioink materials that integrate the benefits of multicomponent self-assembly with additive manufacturing in a rationally designed manner. In a study researchers use elastin-like recombinant co-assemble with graphene oxide to serve as a liquid-in-liquid bioink and fabricate a single tubular structure with hierarchical organization and resolutions down to ∼۱۰ μm in diameter made with ∼۲ μm thick walls.
Wu Y, Fortunato GM, Okesola BO, Di Brocchetti FL, Suntornnond R, Connelly J, De Maria C, Rodriguez-Cabello JC, Vozzi G, Wang W, Mata A. An interfacial self-assembling bioink for the manufacturing of capillary-like structures with tuneable and anisotropic permeability. Biofabrication. 2021 Apr 8;13(3):035027.