Fabrication of scaffolds and then cell seeding is one of the common methods in tissue engineering. Although synthetic polymers have adequate mechanical properties to replace some bone tissues, they are generally hydrophobic and do not have any specific cell recognition sites that lead to poor cell affinity and adhesion. Researchers have fabricated hybrid scaffolds using PCL and GelMA carrying dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), which simultaneously stimulate bone formation and provide the mechanical strength suitable for bone tissue engineering applications. The results showed that the compressive modulus of scaffolds is in the range of trabecular bone. Also, during 21 days, the cells had high survival and expressed two key proteins, osteopontin and osteocalcin.
reference: Buyuksungur S, Hasirci V, Hasirci N. 3D printed hybrid bone constructs of PCL and dental pulp stem cells loaded GelMA. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2021 Dec;109(12):2425-37.