One of the most common hereditary craniofacial anomalies in humans are cleft lip and cleft alveolar bone with or without cleft palate. German researchers developed a novel therapy concept based on 3D printing of biodegradable calcium phosphate-based materials allowing fabrication of patient-specific, tissue-engineered bone grafts.
Morphology of scaffolds of type A and B, cell colonization and implantation. (A,B) Scheme of the scaffolds, stereomicroscopical images of the scaffolds after plotting and fluorescence-microscopical images of the scaffolds seeded with rMSC (green: actin cytoskeletons, blue: nuclei, CPC exhibits blue autofluorescence). Scaffolds of type A were fabricated with 60° layer-to-layer orientation and scaffolds of type B with 30° layer-to-layer orientation. (C) Empty defect of the cleft (left) and filled defect with a precisely fitting scaffold (right).